A carbon atom of mass number 12 and a carbon atom of mass number 14 are

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MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS – 1 POINT EACH – 50 POINTS TOTAL:  On the answer sheet, indicate the letter that represents the best answer to each of the multiple choice questions below.

  1. In science, a hypothesis must be A) a known fact   B) testable C)  derived from a theory
  2. D) able to be proven absolutely true
  1. Which of the following includes all the others?
  2. A) population B) cell       C) organism       D) atom
  1. A carbon atom of mass number 12 and a carbon atom of mass number 14 are
  2. A) covalent B) compounds       C) isotopes      D) ions
  1. A chlorine atom has 17 protons, 18 neutrons, and 17 electrons. The atomic number of

chlorine is        A) 8     B) 17     C) 35      D) 52

  1. If you place the probe of a pH meter in lye or sodium hydroxide (NaOH), it will read

pH 14.  Sodium hydroxide is     A) an acid     B) neutral       C) a base

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  1. This polysaccharide forms fibers that are a major component of plant cell walls:
  2. A) glucose B) starch    C) cellulose  D) glycogen
  1. Glycerol is a building block of A) starch B) enzymes C) vegetable oil   D) DNA
  1. Which of these types of molecules contain nitrogen?
  2. A) proteins B) phospholipids        C) polysaccharides
  1. Prokaryotic cells, with no nucleus or membranous organelles, are found in
  2. A) animals B) bacteria    C) fungi     D) plants
  1. The main function of a ribosome is to A) extract energy from glucose
  2. B) synthesize glucose  C) store food in the form of fat
  3. D) synthesize proteins
  1. Mitochondria A) package proteins for secretion from cell B) contain chromosomes
  2. C) are sites of oxidation of glucose to generate ATP D) synthesize proteins
  1. The plasma membrane consists of A) a single layer of phospholipid molecules
  2.  B) a double layer of phospholipid molecules in which proteins are embedded
  3.  C) several layers of protein and carbohydrate molecules
  4. D) a triple layer of phospholipids and carbohydrates
  1. The movement of molecules from a region of low concentration across a membrane

to a region of high concentration by use of ATP energy is   A) active transport

  1. B) diffusion   C) passive transport   D) osmosis
  1. The oxygen in our atmosphere is produced by A) greenhouse effect
  2. B) cellular respiration C) photosynthesis   D) volcanic eruptions
  1. Yeast cells break down glucose anaerobically into
  2. A) ethanol and CO2               B) lactic acid and CO2
  3. C) lactic acid and H2O         D) ethanol and H2O
  1. The net energy gain from complete cellular respiration is
  2. A) 2 ATP B) 4 ATP    C) 8 ATP    D) 36-38 ATP
  1. Carbon dioxide is released in A) the light-dependent phase of photosynthesis
  2. B) the Krebs cycle C) glycolysis      D) the Calvin cycle
  1. If the concentration of glucose in the water outside of a cell is higher than the

concentration inside,    A) water will tend to enter the cell by osmosis         B) water will

tend to leave the cell by osmosis   C) glucose will tend to enter the cell by osmosis             D) glucose will tend to leave the cell by osmosis

  1. What happens if a red blood cell is placed in a hypotonic solution?
  2.  A) the cell will shrink     B) the cell will swell and may burst
  3. C) the cell will remain the same size
  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of enzymes? A) they are  proteins
  2. B) they speed up the rate of chemical reactions C) they act on specific substances called

substrates   D) they are used up in each reaction, thus need to be produced in large quantities

  1. Which of these does not have to be present for photosynthesis to occur?
  2. A) water B) carbon dioxide    C) glucose      D) chlorophyll
  1. Each new cell produced by this process will have an identical copy of all

chromosomes and genes possessed by the parent cell:   A) mitosis   B) meiosis

  1. During the first division of meiosis, A) chromosomes separate at the centromere
  2. B) homologous chromosomes separate C) chromosomes become triploid
  1. The number of chromosomes in a human sperm cell is A) 4   B) 8   C) 23   D) 46
  2. In the notation A = normal, a = albino, the genotype AA describes
  3. A) heterozygous B) homozygous dominant     C) homozygous recessive
  1. If two normal parents have an albino child, the genotypes of the parents are
  2. A) AA x Aa      B) Aa x Aa     C) Aa x aa    D) aa x aa
  1. A father with genotype IAIAand mother with phenotype O would produce children

with blood type:     A) A      B) B      C) AB      D) O

  1. A change in DNA base sequence from CATAC to CACAC would describe
  2. A) translation B) replication    C) transcription   D) mutation
  1. Which of these processes does not occur in the nucleus?
  2. A) DNA replication B) transcription    C) translation
  1. tRNA molecules contain anticodons and carry amino acids to be used in this process:
  2. A) mutation B) DNA replication    C) transcription   D) translation
  1. Exchange of genes between maternal and paternal chromosomes before the first

division of meiosis is caused by

  1. A) X-linkage B) crossing over     C) replication    D) cytokinesis
  1. Which is not a subunit of DNA? A) adenine    B) guanine   C) uracil    D) phosphate
  1. A karyotype of an individual with Down syndrome has how many chromosomes?
  2. A) 3 B) 23       C) 46       D) 47
  1. If a heterozygous male mates with an albino female, what percentage of albino

children would be expected?    A) 0%      B) 25%      C) 50%      D) 75%      E) 100%

  1. A father with genotype IAIBand mother with phenotype O could produce children

with these blood types:     A) AB only     B) A and B  only    C) A, B, and AB only

  1. D) A, B, AB, and O
  1. During DNA replication, an old DNA strand with base sequence ATCTGAGTA

would serve as a template to form a new complementary strand with the base sequence:

  1. A) TAGACTCAT B) ATCTGAGTA    C) AUCUCUGUA
  1. In peas, tall (T) is dominant to dwarf (t) and, on a separate chromosome set, purple

flower (P) is dominant to white flower (p).  If Gregor Mendel crosses the genotypes TtPp

and ttPp, what is the expected ratio of phenotypes in the offspring?

  1. A) 9/16 tall purple flowered, 3/16 tall white, 3/16 dwarf purple, 1/16 dwarf white
  2. B) 3/8 tall purple flowered, 1/8 tall white, 3/8 dwarf purple, 1/8 dwarf white
  3. C) 1/4 tall purple flowered, 1/4 tall white, 1/4 dwarf purple, 1/4 dwarf white
  4. D) 3/4 tall purple flowered, 1/4 dwarf white
  1. Queen Victoria’s son Leopold had hemophilia, which is caused by a sex-linked

recessive gene (Xh).  Leopold lived to be 31 years old and fathered a normal daughter.

What is the genotype of his daughter?

  1. A) XHXH    B)  XHXh     C)  XhXh     D)  XHY
  1. Microevolution by genetic drift is more likely in
  2. A) large populations B) small populations
  1. New alleles appear in a species by A) genetic drift       B) mutation
  2. C) gene flow D) natural selection
  1. Speciation is most likely when a huge continental population of a snail species
  2. A) undergoes genetic drift B) is forced north by global warming
  3. C) is divided in two over the eons by the rise of a mountain range
  1. The insect wing, bat wing, and bird wing are
  2. A) analogous structures         B) homologous structures
  1. Groups of organisms that interbreed in nature and are reproductively isolated from

other such groups defines   A) communities    B) hybrids

  1. C) families D) species
  1. Certain species of ants protect, and receive food from, certain species of acacia trees

in the tropics.   This exemplifies   A) predation   B) mutualism   C) competition

  1. The most important cause of species extinction due to humans in recent centuries is
  2. A) disease B) global warming    C) genetic engineering     D) habitat loss
  1. Logistic population growth will level off at a number of organisms that are
  2. A) ten times the number in the original population B) the exponential line
  3. C) equal to the number of niches D) the carrying capacity K of the environment
  1. If the decomposers were removed from an ecosystem, the other organisms would

eventually die because  A) green plants would run out of necessary minerals in the

soil   B) green plants would lose their energy source     C) herbivores must eat

decomposers     D) decomposers release oxygen needed by the other organisms

  1. The source of energy for an ecosystem is A) nutrients in the soil B) water
  2. C) sunlight   D) recycled energy from decomposers
  1. Fungi are primarily A) producers B) herbivores   C) carnivores   D) decomposers
  1. If deer are placed on an island with a constant, renewable food supply and a stable biological

community with predators, the growth curve after several decades would be described as a

  1. A) J-curve [exponential]     B) S-curve [logistic]
  1. Fats contain more energy per gram than carbohydrates or proteins because
  2. A) fat molecules contain a lower percentage of oxygen atoms
  3. B) fat molecules contain a lower percentage of hydrogen atoms
  4. C) fat molecules contain a lower percentage of carbon atoms
  5. D) fat molecules contain a higher percentage of adipose atoms
  1. Professor Hotsun is studying a desert ecosystem containing fig trees, fig-eating rats, rat-

eating snakes, and snake-eating lizards.. If the fig trees produce one million kcal of            energy, about how much energy would be contained in the population of rat-eating      snakes?

  1. A) 100,000 kcal
  2. B) 50,000 kcal
  3. C) 10,000 kcal
  4. D) 1000 kcal

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS – 2 POINTS EACH – 14 POINTS TOTAL:  On the answer sheet, indicate the letter that represents the best answer to the questions below.

  1. Colorblindness (Xb) is X-linked and recessive.  Blondie is normal, and not a carrier,

but her husband Dagwood is colorblind. If their daughter Cookie marries a colorblind

man, what phenotypes can Cookie expect in her sons?

  1. A) all normal B) 1/2 colorblind, 1/2 normal      C) all colorblind
  1. John has type B blood. John’s father has type O blood.  Mary has type A blood.  Mary’s        mother is type B.  The possible blood types of John and Mary’s daughters are
  2. A) AB only B) A or AB only   C) B or AB only   D) A, B, AB or O

Here is a list of mRNA codons and their amino acids.  Use this information to answer #55 and #56:

AAU – asparagine       AUC – isoleucine         CAA – glutamine        CAU – histidine

CGU – arginine           CUU – leucine             GAA – glutamate        GAU – aspartate

GCA – alanine             GGC – glycine             UGU – cysteine

  1. The sequence of amino acids of Arginine-Alanine-Leucine would be coded by this

sequence of bases on mRNA :    A) CGUGCACUU     B)  GUGCACAA

  1. C)       GCACGTGAA          D) GAAGCAGGC
  1. A sequence of bases on a DNA strand of CTACTTCGT would code for this amino

acid sequence:

  1. A) Leucine-Asparagine-Alanine B) Aspartate-Glutamate-Alanine
  2. C) Glutamine-Cysteine- Histidine     D) Leucine-Glutamate-Histidine

ESSAY QUESTIONS – Choose 6 out of the following 8 questions to answer.  Each answer is worth 10 points.  Please answer on answer sheet at the end of this exam.  Be concise. The full number of points will be awarded for correct and thorough answers.  Partial credit will be awarded for less than complete answers, so it is to your advantage to attempt an answer.

  1. 57. You are a writer for “Consumer Reports” magazine and you are asked to design an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of three brands of whitening strips for teeth. Describe how you would do this using the scientific method.  Include all of the steps, control group, experimental groups, and variables.
  1. Your biology class is performing an osmosis experiment. You are given three identical stalks of celery and three salt solutions of varying solute amounts. The data table below compares the solute amount of the celery stalks to the solutions.

Solute Amount of the Solution                      Water Amount of the Solution

Solution A less than the celery stalk               more water than the celery stalk

Solution B same as the celery stalk                 same water as the celery stalk

Solution C more than the celery stalk             less water than the celery stalk

a). Identify which solution is isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic to the celery stalk cells

b). Describe what happens when the celery stalk is placed into each of the respective solution.

  1. Dihybrid cross. The kernels (seeds) on an ear of corn are all offspring of one set of parents.  There are 2 pairs of alleles on separate homologous chromosomes (purple or yellow kernels on one pair, plump or shrunken kernels on another).  Yellow (Y) is dominant to purple (y) and plump (P) is dominant to shrunken (p).  If the genotype of parent plants are Yypp and YyPp, what are the expected probabilities of the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring kernels? Explain your reasoning.
  1. A population of grasshoppers in the Kansas prairie has two color phenotypes, with 90% of the grasshoppers green and 10% brown. Typically in the last century, the prairie receives adequate rain to maintain healthy green grass, but for the last decade the prairie suffers a severe drought and is also invaded by a bird that eats grasshoppers.

Briefly explain in terms of the four parts of natural selection listed below how the population of grasshoppers would be expected to change during the drought years.

overproduction –

variation –

competition & survival –

differential reproduction –

  1. 61. Describe an environmental problem that you feel is the most urgent worldwide. Which areas of the world are suffering the most from the problem? Propose a solution to the problem.
  1. 62. Describe three structures found in plant cells but not animal cells. Describe the function of each structure, and how each benefits plant cells but is not necessary for animal cells.
  1. Explain why top carnivores, such as eagles and tigers, have low population densities in nature. Include processes of the energy pyramid (trophic levels) in your answer.
  1. 64. Apply your knowledge of the scientific method to design an experiment. We will use a real situation from my research project in Olympic National Park. There is no single correct answer to this exercise.  Your proposed experimental design may well be better than the ones that I actually used.  It is more difficult to design an experiment in the field than in a lab, because there are so many variables in nature.

Observation.  When Olympic National Park was established over 60 years ago, it included scattered homesteads with small fields that were farmed for hay.  The farms were abandoned, but many of the fields still remain today.  Trees from the surrounding rain forest have been unable to invade the fields, in spite of fertile soils and abundant precipitation.  This is unusual because abandoned fields that are surrounded by forest in most parts of the world are readily colonized by trees and become forest in a few decades.  [The purpose of the experiment was both theoretical, to examine why these fields differed from the standard model of old-field succession in ecology, and practical, to provide knowledge to the Park Service who do not like non-native plants in our National Parks.]

The fields in Olympic National Park are mostly covered by non-native grasses that form a thick sod.  Large amounts of wind-blown seeds of the surrounding Sitka spruce trees fall onto the fields each year, but the seeds are very small.

General Hypothesis.  Sitka spruce trees fail to colonize the fields because competition from the thick grasses prevents the establishment of spruce seedlings.

Your assignment:

Using your knowledge of the scientific method, design an experiment to test this general hypothesis.  Your experiment must include and identify a control group and an experimental group.  You may modify the general hypothesis into a specific hypothesis, which is more limited and directly fits your experiment, if you wish.   Explain how the data that you collect from your experiment will allow you to make a conclusion about your hypothesis (in your explanation, DO NOT make up imaginary results).

When considering your methods, you may assume that you have access to spruce seeds and any tools or materials that you might need to manipulate the environment for your experiment.

.

MULTIPLE CHOICE ANSWER SHEET

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ESSAY ANSWER SHEET – Take as much space as you need to answer each question.  Provide concise answers in your own words.  Do not cut and paste from other sources.  (Just type n/a after the number for the two questions that you do not answer.)

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