Background: Dendrobates pumilo is a poison dart frog with a distributional range from Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. The bright colors from the skin of these frogs are considered to be a warning sign of toxicity to predators. Although D. pumilo is one species, there are 10 color polymorphic populations within this range. The warning signs as displayed on D. pumilo are favored by natural selection in terms of predator avoidance.
Purpose of the study (what scientists wanted to understand):
- 1) How visual conspicuousness and toxicity is correlated.
- 2) Differences between visual backgrounds and predator visual systems on detection of D.
Dorsal: upper side or back
Save your time - order a paper!
Get your paper written from scratch within the tight deadline. Our service is a reliable solution to all your troubles. Place an order on any task and we will take care of it. You won’t have to worry about the quality and deadlinesOrder Paper Now
Visual systems: In this study they are referring to how predators “view” D. pumilo. Remember, not all predators will see their prey the same way.
Color polymorphisms: alternative phenotypes, and in this case alternative phenotypes of frog skin color.
toxicity scores with standard errors. Different letters above the bars indicate statistically significant differences; numbers are population numbers referred to in C and in subsequent figures. Allobates talamancae (a closely related Dendrobatid frog) and saline solution served as toxicity measure controls. B, Gray bars indicate the overall brightness of dorsal coloration (total reflectance flux, SR, in arbitrary units) for the 11 frog taxa. C, The inset gives the correlation between toxicity and dorsal brightness for the 10 D. pumilio populations. Numbers refer to the population labels in A.
Is visual conspicuousness and toxicity is correlated? Give examples from Figures 1-3 to support your answer.
Were there differences between visual backgrounds and predator visual systems on detection of D. pumilo? Give examples from the figures to support your answer.