Biology Lab: Forces of Evolution
Report the calculated survival frequencies (these will be in decimal form) of each phenotype of shell bugs at each generation for Exercise 2A and 2B. Two simple tables would be preferred.
The procedure asked you to graph the survival frequencies of the two phenotypes of shell bug for the two different sized populations. Look at the two graphs that you plotted for Exercise 2A and 2B. Consider their similarities and differences. Explain how genetic drift effects the phenotype proportions differently in the large (150) population and the small (50) population. Do the different phenotypes trend steadily up or down or do they fluctuate? Do they stay the same over the generations? Consider each of these question for each sized population.
Write a Discussion/Conclusion to Exercise 1. An appropriate discussion is a paragraph or two that includes identification and restatement of the hypothesis, a sentence that definitively states whether or not your data supported (NOT PROVED) your hypothesis followed by specific examples from your data that defends that statement of support of lack of support. There should be an explanation of the concept being investigated (how predators can influence a phenotype frequency), and finally describe anything that occurred during the experiment that may have biased your results (i.e. trouble with calculations, dog ate your data sheet, children at your shell bugs, etc.) This question is worth 4 points. You should have at least four sentences.
Evolution is defined in your lab procedures a “changes in the frequency of a particular phenotype over several generations”. Look at your data table for Exercise 1. Did your population of shell bugs should undergo evolution. How do you know?
What “force” or mechanism for evolution is demonstrated in Exercise 1?
Report the calculated survival frequencies (these will be in decimal form) of each phenotype of shell bugs at each generation of Exercise 1. A simple table format would be preferred.
From reading your procedures and textbook on the topic, what size population, large (150) or small (50) is more likely to be influenced by genetic drift? Did your results reflect this?
Some examples of “artificial” selection might be
a. development of “tea-cup” poodles
b. the creation of dinosaurs that occurred long ago
c. development of drought-resistant corn
d. breeding of race horses
e. breeding of hairless cats
Genetic drift is most significant for ____ populations.
b. all of these are equal
How would biologists determine if a population is evolving?
Biologists consider evolution to be
a. just a theory
b. some relatively insignificant thinking
c. a fundamental part of the biological sciences
d. a hypothesis
Genetic drift is defined as random changes that can occur in a population’s allele frequency. In this case, _______________ would not play a role in the reproductive success of individuals
a. bottleneck affect
b. different phenotypes
d. storms and other natural disasters
Charls Darwin suggested _______________ as a mechanism that causes evolution.
a. artificial selection
b. natural selection
c. genetic drift
Chapter 16 Ecology(Biology)
Describe a mutualistic interaction between two (or more) species.
What is an ecological pyramid, and why does it narrow toward the top? Describe the pathway of energy flow through the ecosystem.
What is a niche?
A. A mating system in which one male mates with several females
B. An example of population cycling
C. An evolutionary arm race
D. A plant structure containing many flowers
E. The particular set of resources a species uses
Describe the pathway and main resevoir of the following: (a) the carbon cycle, (b) the oxygen cycle, and (c) the nitrogen cycle. what are these cycles known as?
What is the competitive exclusion principle?
|A conclusion that says one species benefits while the other is harmed|
|A conclusion that says that if two or more species attempt to utilize the same resource in a habitat, it will have a negative effect on the species that is newer to the habitat.|
|A conclusion that says two competitors cannot coexist|
|A conclusion that says two competitors may peacefully coexist.|
|A conclusion that says both species benefit|
Chapter 17 Biodiversity and Human Affairs
What is the Blitzkrieg Hypothesis? List one alternative hypothesis that could account for the same phenomenon. Why are we considered to be living in the 6th mass extinction, in other words, what are the two main factors leading to this event?
What is one possible effect of removing a keystone species from an ecosystem?
|Increased species evenness|
|Increased species richness|
|Increased species stability|
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|Species diversity, species-area relationship, and species evenness|
|Species richness, species abundance, and species evenness|
|Genetic diversity, species abundance, and species evenness|
|Species diversity, species productivity, and species stability|
|Species diversity, genetic diversity, and habitat diversity|
Define the following terms: species richness, species abundance, and species evenness. Which of the following hypothesis best supports biodiversity and why?: Climate Hypothesis, Productivity Hypothesis, Stability Hypothesis
Describe what have ecologists learned about the relationship between biodiversity and the stability of an ecosystem? How does this relate to the spotted owl controversy?
Chapter 18 Human Population Growth
Why does a population size level off as it approaches carrying capacity? What is the difference in carrying capacity between a population experiencing exponential growth to one experiencing logistic growth?
What are the four factors that determine a population’s growth rate?
|Birth rate, death rate, carrying capacity and emigration rate|
|Birth rate, death rate, immigration rate, and emigration rate|
|Birth rate, death rate, doubling time, and carrying capacity|
|Birth rate, death rate, compounding, and immigration rate|
|Birth rate, death rate, doubling time, and compounding|
What information is shown in an age pyramid?
|Sex ratio and age structure of a population|
|Demography and sex ratio of a population|
|logistic growth and age structure|
|Carrying capacity and sex ratio|
|Exponential growth and logistic growth|
Briefly explain two reasons why a government would want an accurate census of its population.
What are density-dependent factors? Give examples of potential density-dependent factors for a top predator, like a wolf, and a hibernating creature, like a bear. How did Thomas Malthus influence Darwin’s development of the Theory of Evolution?
Lab: Biodiveristy and Evolution
|A. afarensis is more closely related to living chimpanzees than to living humans.|
|Larger brains are a trait that separate the genus Homo from their closest relatives.|
|H. erectus is more closely related to H. neanderthalesis than H. sapiens.|
|The closest livin relative of H. sapiens is H. erectus|
|eyes located on top of head|
|strong arm-like bones|
|Western clawed frog|
|Great white shark|
|South American lungfish|
|Western clawed frog|
|Chimp SIV EK505|
|Chimp SIV MB897|
|Chimp SIV TAN1|