Philosophy Matrices Template

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EDUC 504

Philosophy Matrices Template

(The names beside each philosophy are just for reference to help you connect the philosophy with specific philosophers.)

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Traditional Philosophies
IDEALISM (Plato)
Metaphysics Epistemology Axiology Learner’s Nature Teacher’s Role Curricular Focus Methodology Criticisms
Reality is spiritual, intellectual, and universal. An unchanging world of perfect ideals of truth and beauty Reminiscence. Knowing is recalling latent ideas from the mind Values are unchanging, based on goodness and beauty Striving to achieve fullness of human nature.

Spiritual and intellectual journey

Personify culture and reality. Assist in spiritual and intellectual self-development “whatness of education”

Human history and literature

Self-examination

Lectures and discussions

 
REALISM (Aristotle)
Metaphysics Epistemology Axiology Learner’s Nature Teacher’s Role Curricular Focus Methodology Criticisms
Natural phenomena are organized by inanimate to animate.

An objective order of reality.

Matter-Form Hypothesis

Rationally investigate natural and social reality. Formulate theories of what the world contains

Sensation and abstraction

 

Eudaimonia.

Moral and ethical virtues. Prudent choices. Perfecting human intellect

Develop a sense of practical skill, applying knowledge and virtue to make decisions in life. Seeking to grow in maturity of human knowledge Exemplify virtue. Be a specialist in skills and subjects taught.

Enable learner to achieve their potential

 

Liberal arts and science; grammar, literature, mathematics, poetry, philosophy, and natural sciences    
NEO-SCHOLASTICISM (Thomas Aquinas)
Metaphysics Epistemology Axiology Learner’s Nature Teacher’s Role Curricular Focus Methodology Criticisms
The universe and life were created by God. The soul lives eternally in heaven

We are rational creatures distinguished by intellect

Natural process of knowing is enhanced by cooperating with supernatural grace.

The universe functions purposefully, rather than by chance

Religious and theological studies reinforced by habits and rituals of religion. Knowledge does not lead to morality   Effective communicator, possessing knowledge or skill

Parents are primary educator

Forming Christlike individuals.

Total process of human development

Verbal process of words and phrases to demonstrate a skill to be learned.

Begins with what is known to what is new

Biblical

 
Modern Philosophies
PRAGMATISM (William James, John Dewey)
Metaphysics Epistemology Axiology Learner’s Nature Teacher’s Role Curricular Focus Methodology Criticisms
Truth is a tentative assertion based on human experience Knowledge is based on experience. Pereceptions of the world are unique to each person Values come from human response to environmental and cultural situations Self-directed and self-disciplined Guides a situation rather than direct it.

Allow for errors

Growth; more experience, problems, and resolutions to those problems

Social relationships

  Saw Dewey and other pragmatists as undermining the true role of philosophy.

An attack on the concept that “humans are rational inhabitants of a purposeful universe”

EXISTENTIALISM (Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger, etc.)
Metaphysics Epistemology Axiology Learner’s Nature Teacher’s Role Curricular Focus Methodology Criticisms
Knowing is subjective, personal, and individualized, not objective and standarized Truth is a personal. Taking what is known and making it your own Living is a process of evaluation and construction Self-expressive

 

Stimulate awareness for the learner

Create situations to get students to express subjectivity

Givens (natural and physical sciences, mathematics, and social sciences) and Open-areas (humanities, literature, fine and expressive arts)

 

  Undermines ethics, denying fixed principles
Contemporary Educational Theories for Transmission
PERENNIALISM (Adler, Hutchins, William Bennett, Allan Bloom, etc.)
Metaphysics Epistemology Axiology Learner’s Nature Teacher’s Role Curricular Focus Methodology Criticisms
Truth and values are universal

Humans are defined by inherent rational nature

Best reliable knowledge is found in liberal arts and sciences. What we can know is out there; through our intellect and reasoning powers, we can acquire knowledge Education is to inform about what reality is and how it works, develop and cultivate reasoning powers, its about truth and is the same everywhere, based on knowledge contained in the liberal arts and sciences, and it should cultivate choices based on knowledge Self-introductory

Able to understand, analyze, and appreciate the classics

Have knowledge and an understanding of liberal arts and sciences

Engages the students and introducing them to topics

Skilled in Socratic Method

Cultural skills and knowledge that educated have needed across time.

Learned disciplines (mathematics, history, literature, language, art, music, sciences)

 

Develop rationality by exposing students to the works of Western civilization Pragmatist: “marching backwards to the Middle Ages”, “knowledge is based on active and ongoing experience through interactions with the environment”

Progressive: “top-down theory of education (elementary and secondary schooling is set by colleges and universities)

Postmodernist: claims to universiality are archaic classical thought. Great Books privileged the works of “white Europeans and ignored multiculturalism”

ESSENTIALISM (E.D. Hirsch)
Metaphysics Epistemology Axiology Learner’s Nature Teacher’s Role Curricular Focus Methodology Criticisms
Education has essential characteristics Antecedent knowledge found in liberal arts and sciences; represents what needs to be known to be intelligent Education is to bring humans in contact with knowledge, transmitted through generations Internalize the discipline of of learning

Use what is known and apply it to situations or problems

Organizing a subject into teachable and learnable units based on students readiness

Teach basic skills

Basic skills and learned disciplines Use of knowledge developed and organized by scientists and scholars Experimentalist: oppose antecedent knowledge, schools as exclusive academic institution, subjects as knowledge, and teaching methods in subject matter

Progressives: oppose tradition being core of knowledge and the neglect of students needs and interests

BEHAVIORISM (Skinner)
Metaphysics Epistemology Axiology Learner’s Nature Teacher’s Role Curricular Focus Methodology Criticisms
               
Contemporary Educational Theories for Transformation
RECONSTRUCTIONISM (Counts)
Metaphysics Epistemology Axiology Learner’s Nature Teacher’s Role Curricular Focus Methodology Criticisms
    Bring about change and create a equitable and democratic society     Political, social, and economical issues Group discussions and problem solving  
CRITICAL PEDAGOGY (Friere, Giroux, Noddings, Gloria Watkins [bell hooks], Peter McLaren, etc.)

This section might be a bit more challenging than the ones above. You are encouraged to supplement the textbook information with internet searches on the topic.

Metaphysics Epistemology Axiology Learner’s Nature Teacher’s Role Curricular Focus Methodology Criticisms
Question and challenge domination

Undermine beleifs and practices related to it

Truth = power

Comes from education and critical thinking

Democracy and social injustice Understand freedoms

Show interest in subject matter

Facilitate inform students on current events and provide tools for critical thinking Events relevant at the time of teaching Lectures, videos, and stories

Discussions

 

 
CONSTRUCTIVISM (Piaget, Vygotsky, Constance Kamii, etc.)

This section might be a bit more challenging than the ones above. You are encouraged to supplement the textbook information with internet searches on the topic.

Metaphysics Epistemology Axiology Learner’s Nature Teacher’s Role Curricular Focus Methodology Criticisms
               

 

 

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