PRS4210 Occupational Health, Safety & Hygiene.

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PRS4210 Occupational Health, Safety & Hygiene.

PRS4210 Occupational Health, Safety & Hygiene.
Module Leaders Welcome

Welcome to PRS4210 Occupational Health, Safety & Hygiene.

Throughout this module you will have the opportunity to explore the subject of occupational health, safety and hygiene. Hopefully you will find the subject interesting and relevant.

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This handbook is designed to support you in your studies and will provide the core information relating to the module, including assessment and teaching process.

There is also a suggested reference material and a wider reading and website list which provide aIDitional information on the various elements that make up the subject area.

The wider you read about and around the subject the more perspectives you will encounter and the better placed you will be to explore the many approaches possible.

There are many organisations, the Health and Safety Executive, local authorities, employers, unions and voluntary organisations which all play a role in improving the working environment.

The challenge is not only to understand their roles and impacts but to be able to evaluate and judge their successes and failings.

I look forward to facilitating your learning in an area that continues to challenge as the pace of change in the work environment quickens with the introduction of new working practices and technologies.
PRS4210 Factors Shaping Health and Safety at Work
To thoroughly appraise the factors that shape occupational health and safety at work.

By evaluating these factors – legal, policy, human and organisational – students will be able to determine the legal and theoretical basis to the current approaches to occupational health and how change is caused by external influencing factors.

• Legal and theoretical aspects of managing workplace hazards incorporating statutory and regulatory obligations and guidance and research from HSE and professional body(s).
• Agencies enforcement policies and decision making process and their influence on safety standards and how they are monitored and benchmarked.
• Managing safety through developing an organisation safety policy, and its implementation through communication.
• Safety information sources and uses as indicators of success and in informing enforcement and public health policy.
• The human dimension – safety culture and climate and their importance to organisations.
• Professional practice, competent advice and accountability in occupational risk professions

Learning Outcomes

On completion of this module, the successful student will be able to:

1. Critically evaluate appropriateness of current statutory and regulatory requirements and associated guidance, both criminal and civil, for securing compliance and managing change in occupational safety and health.
2. Critically evaluate and analyse health and safety information, internal and external to the organisation, and its importance as safety performance indicators.
3. Argue the role of health and safety policy in decision making, managing health and safety and importance of communication within an organisation.
4. Appraise the concept of human factors, importance of positive health and safety culture and risk of human error to an organisation.
5. Exhibit critical insight into the interaction between various aspects of professional practice, competent advice and accountability in occupational risk professions
Learning, Teaching and Assessment Strategy
The teaching and learning strategies incorporated in this module are in line with the School’s Teaching, Learning and Assessment strategy.

• Theoretical material will be explored by lectures from tutors and selected external
• Real world case studies will be evaluated in a number of ways – for example
discussion with external practitioners
• Workshops will be used to demonstrate equipment, carry out practical inspections, audits and assessments on various workplace scenarios and items of work equipment
• Seminars will be used to extend the theoretical material using group interaction
and practical case studies and exercises
• Background reading and self-directed learning is an essential element for the
successful completion of the learning and teaching activities.

Teaching schedule

See separate file

Formative assessment: (see moodle for submission dates)

A 1000 word essay on the way in which safety culture is influenced by internal and external factors (Learning outcomes 2,3,4)
Marking Criteria
Achieved Partially Achieved Not achieved Feedback
Safety culture comprehensively explained and articulated.
The general principles of safety management clearly evaluated and appraised.
Management solutions clearly identified and communicated.
Breaches of legislation and mitigation clearly evaluated.
Potential legal implications of failure including enforcement identified.
Suitable and sufficient conclusion to the essay has been written.
(If applicable) appendix material is relevant and supportive to the main essay.
Well presented within the required word count with accurate referencing and evidence of wide reading.

Critically analyse how external factors influence how an organisation approaches occupational health and safety and how a failing organisation can be turned around using all appropriate mechanisms of state intervention
Assessing learning outcomes 1,2,3,4,5

1500 words
Marking Criteria Indicative marking % Feedback
70+ 60-69 50-59 40-49 <40
Identify the external factors that impact on an organisation.
Review how policy may influence intervention
Breaches of legislation and mitigation clearly evaluated.
Potential legal implications of failure including enforcement identified.
Analyses how safety culture might respond to these factors.
Suitable and sufficient conclusion to the essay has been written.
(If applicable) appendix material is relevant and supportive to the main essay.
Well presented within the required word count with accurate referencing and evidence of wide reading.
Summative exam (worth 50%):

• 90 minutes
• Open book exam
• Focus on law enforcement using the legal options available to enforcement officers

Suggested module references and further reading
These are the main references I’ve used to construct this module, most can be downloaded for free directly from the internet or using your UniHub access. All weblinks worked in January 2014 but are subject to change.

You are recommended to make full use of the Public health, risk, safety and environment library subject guide of UniHub. The website ( – on 01st Feb. 2014) contains further information on relevant guides, library resources and web resources. You may find it useful to contact the subject librarian for risk, safety, health and environment for further information via the main library desk.

Asbury, S. and Richard Ball (2009) Do the right thing – the practical, jargon-free guide to corporate social responsibility
Barbour professional index database (via UniHub)
Boyle T. (2008) Health and Safety: Risk Management IOSH Services Ltd.
Davis, C. (2004) Making companies safe: What works? Centre for Corporate Accountability – (available for free via:
DWP Department of Work and Pensions (2011) Good Health and Safety, Good for Everyone: The next steps in the Government’s plans for reform of the health and safety system in Britain (available for free via:
Frynas, J. (2009) Beyond corporate social responsibility: oil multinationals and social challenges Cambridge University Press, UK (Note: an Mdx professor)
GaID, S. and A. Collins (2002) Safety Culture: A review of the literature Health and Safety Laboratory, Sheffield, UK (available for free via:
Hampton, P. (2004) Reducing administrative burdens: effective inspection and enforcement Her Majesty’s Treasury (available for free via:
Hazards magazine –
Hutter, B. (1989) Variations in Regulatory Enforcement Styles Law and Policy Vol.11 (2) pp. 153-174
HSE (undated) Human Factors Briefing Note No. 1 available – with all other HSE human factors briefings – from:
HSE (2013– new version) Successful health and safety management HS(G) 65 – available for free via:
HSE (2013) National Local Authority Enforcement Code, Health and Safety at Work in England, Scotland & Wales (available for free via:
Löfstedt, R. (2011) Reclaiming health and safety for all (available for free via:
Macrory, R. (2006) Regulatory Justice: Making Sanctions Effective – available for free via:
Min-Dong Paul Lee(2008) A review of the theories of corporate social responsibility: Its evolutionary path and the road ahead International Journal of Management Reviews Vol. 10 (1) pp.53-73
Tombs, S. (2001) Death and work in Britain The Sociological Review Vol. 47 (2) pp. 345-367
Tombs, S. & D. Whyte (2007) Safety crimes Willan Publishing, Devon, UK
Vickers, I. (2008) Better regulation and enterprise: the case of environmental health risk regulation in Britain. Policy studies Vol. 29 (2). pp. 215-232
Young (2010) Common Sense Common Safety – available for free via:

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