Okay, you have your thoughts down on paper and have gone over your organizational structure to be sure that your argument is presented in the clearest possible way. Then you have reviewed your claims to be sure that your reasoning is sound. You may have written a first draft that contained only your own words.
Now it is time to add in the support that external sources provide. Think of your sources as a scholarly friend standing beside you when you make a claim, saying that you are right. This friend cannot be the main speaker but can offer affirmation of whatever you are saying. As you add in support, be sure to cite every idea that is not your own. Be sure to indicate with quotation marks and APA style citations precisely what material is from a direct quote, paraphrase, or summary, so as to avoid plagiarism.
The second draft should be the best you can offer without feedback from your instructor.
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Here are the traits of a good second draft:
- Your paper should, at this point, be 6–8 pages of text in length, not counting the title, reference, or abstract pages. (The final will be between 8–10 pages of text).
- Your paper makes a single, main point, a single, argumentative claim that is not too broad, not too narrow, not a fact, and not a feeling.
- All sentences in your paper directly relate to and support your single thesis statement.
- You support your initial claim with the university-level evidence gathered during your research, and occasionally with personal experience, objectively, presented from the third-person point of view. .
- You correctly cite, in APA style, every claim that is not your own or common knowledge and include all necessary information. Each references page entry must have at least one corresponding in-text citation.
- In-text citations are correctly formed, with author’s last names and year-dates.
- You give full credit for any ideas that are not your own.
- Quotes are correctly formatted in either quote marks when short or extensive blockquotes when long.
- Your main point is an original claim that is consistent with current research on the subject selected.
- You avoid fallacious arguments.
- Your word choice and language level show that you have a college-level audience in mind.
- You present the strongest arguments against your claim.
- You reply appropriately to all objections, agreeing with those that are correct, showing the errors in those that are not correct, and acknowledging any areas where you are uncertain.
- You include a properly formatted, APA style title/cover page. The text should be centered and include all the required information.
- Your abstract is presented correctly, without indents, and presents an accurate overview of the paper.
- You include a properly formatted running header and page number on each page.
- Your text in the body of your paper is formed with one inch margins all around, in 12 point Times New Roman plain, black font.
- Your paper ends with a properly formatted, APA style references page that is double-spaced with hanging indentation, proper capitalization, and italicization of major titles. The reference page conforms to expectations of APA format for books, periodicals, and Web sites.
Research Paper Proposal
Solid waste management plays a pivotal role in the society given the fact that it results in the improvement of the waste management, collection and disposal practices.
The government should put in place specific planning and cost analysis metrics in an effort to address the waste management menace. One such metric is the adoption of an integrated solid waste management (ISWM) program that forms the basis of the paper.
Acceding to the study by USEPA (2002), there are both positive and negative effects of waste management to the environment. These are; pollution of human health and the environment, increased waste generation, and increased greenhouse gas emissions from poor waste management.
All these challenges out of solid waste management can be contained by the use of the ISWM program in place. It is because the ISWM program is comprised of various characters namely waste prevention, recycling, composting and disposal (USEPA, 2002). The goal of the program is to prevent waste generation, collecting, reprocessing and recovery of waste materials and landfilling and combustion activities of unpreventable and unrecyclable.
The insufficiency of appropriate measures in place to sustain the solid waste management services in various parts of the world is an inconvenience. It affects natural resources, life support systems, social harmony, human rights, economic growth and public participation in decision-making (Baud, Post & Furedy, 2004). The ineffective on the government raise serious concerns on the ability of the concerned authority to handle the issue.
Reply to Objections
Despite the growing disbelief in the measure put in place by the government concerning the containment of the waste management, there are solid programs that help a lot. The uses of the Waste hierarchy are greatly helping to contain the issue raised effectively. Through the program, messages about waste management sustainability in urban areas are communicated to the target audience (Baud, Post & Furedy, 2004). The content of the messages is information on how avoid, reduce, reuse, recycle and dispose of waste.
Baud I. Post. J & Furedy C. (2004). Solid Waste Management and Recycling: Actors, Partnerships and Policies in Hyderabad, India and Nairobi, Kenya: NY, Boston, Dordrecht, London, And Moscow: Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 1-4020- 175-0
United States Environmental Protection Agency (2002). Solid Waste Management: A Local Challenge With Global Impacts. USA: USEPA.
Solid Waste Management Research Proposal
Based on research, products have changed over the years from being reusable to being disposal. This strategy has influenced negative factors that have greatly affected the environment. The disposal of solid waste products has been the major cause of pollution in the current world. Since the year 1990s, it is evident that millions of people have doubled their output of solid waste to the environment in different ways. Research shows that 75% of waste comes from the mining waste while other 12% comes from agricultural materials. The other 9% is from industries and 4% from municipal waste. In that case, the approach of solid management is very important because it is necessary for safety of human health and environment.
Key words: solid waste management, disposal, recycling, and environmental health.
The issue of solid waste management is a very important approach nowadays. Based on research, it is evident that very little attention is paid to solid waste disposed on landfills. As a result, the environment has faced more than a few issues such as poor health and desertification. This approach has negatively affected the health of more than a few people globally because solid waste has a huge impact to the environment. It is clear that the problem and danger of solid waste is always underestimated by the government and the society at large. Therefore, it important for people to understand the importance of solid waste management because the dangers mainly remain under estimated. Solid waste management plays a pivotal role in the society given the fact that it results in the improvement of the waste management, collection and disposal practices.
As a result of increased cases of solid waste disposal, the government has come up with considerable measures that will ensure that management of solid waste is efficient. A number of people are not aware of the negative effects that these disposals can cause in their lives and the environment as well. As a result of increased issues linked to solid waste, the government should put in place specific planning and cost analysis metrics in an effort to address the waste management menace. One such metric is the adoption of an integrated solid waste management (ISWM) program that forms the basis of the paper.
It is evident that a single waste management strategy is suitable for managing all types of waste in all circumstances. Research shows that most people globally believe that they have done everything eliminate waste such recycling in their homes. However, recycling is not the answer to waste that is disposed in the landfills. The major objective of solid waste management is to ensure that solid waste is eliminated from the environment in order to ensure that environment is conserved properly(USEPA, 2002).
Reducing solid waste and pollution in an organization is not an essay task. It is evident that the chances of reducing solid waste and pollution are limitless in any business organization. However, there are three major ways that can be used to reduce solid waste within an organization. The three ways include:-
- Resource management contracting – This will ensure that the company uses its products well.
- Designing an approach for desecrate reduction and recycling – this approach will ensure all solid wastes are disposed in a considerable manner.
- Implement solid waste and pollution management policy – a policy will ensure that solid waste and pollution are controlled. This can be achieved through the use of power or authority.
Disposing the materials would require expenses such as transportation, disposal, and other considerable factors in order to meet the required needs. For instance, disposal of 150 gallon paint placed in boxes would approximately require $ 6700.00. The expenditure required to dispose the waste of the site is numerous. However, with the aid of hazardous and non- hazardous waste management, the charges of bulking the waste can be reduced or cut shot in order to create room for extra disposal (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002).
Acceding to the study by USEPA (2002), there are both positive and negative effects of waste management to the environment. These are; pollution of human health and the environment, increased waste generation, and increased greenhouse gas emissions from poor waste management. In the year 2002, USEPA observed the best way to conserve environments is through management. Therefore, USEPA partnered with Centre of Waste Management globally in order to implement and put into effect solid waste management policies. Apparently, issues of environmental health are caused by human activity such industries, automobile, pollution and solid waste disposal. In that case, USEPA is progressively taking action to prevent and reduce deaths and infirmity due to contact of environmental pollutions. However, the initial plan of USEPA is to end these calamities before people are exposed to different dangers. Pollution is rampant as a result of solid waste is a factor that continues to affect the world(USEPA, 2002).
All these challenges out of solid waste management can be contained by the use of the ISWM program in place. It is because the ISWM program is comprised of various characters namely waste prevention, recycling, composting and disposal (USEPA, 2002). The goal of the program is to prevent waste generation, collecting, reprocessing and recovery of waste materials and landfilling and combustion activities of unpreventable and unrecyclable. ISWM program has approximated that more than 24% of the health issues are caused by solid waste disposed to the environment. ISWM program in collaboration with other organizations developed an action plan for environmental health in order to progress global environment for current occupants and future generations. The action plan is intended to offer a central summit for the endeavors of municipal agencies towards the significant objective of reducing the environmental burden of diseases. Environmental analysts and scientists are making different targets in order to ensure safety management, health and implementation of a new environment (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002).
The insufficiency of appropriate measures in place to sustain the solid waste management services in various parts of the world is an inconvenience. It affects natural resources, life support systems, social harmony, human rights, economic growth and public participation in decision-making (Baud, Post & Furedy, 2004). The ineffective on the government raise serious concerns on the ability of the concerned authority to handle the issue. Solid waste management strategy is intended to unite the people globally to identify and implement steps of protecting the environment from pollution and health risks. Apparently, U.S federal agency together other states globally have cooperated in order to find the best solution to nation’s environmental challenges. The U.S government agency has a related strategy that provides farther support in the implementation of new environment and health management. Within the past years, the U.S government agency together with ISWM program has completed several action plan and strategies to protect the environment(USEPA, 2002).
Integrated solid waste management (ISWM) has discussed the relation between environmental risk appraisal and disaster risk management as major as the major factors resulting to human health issues and environmental damage. Conversely, ISWM administration proposed to focus on the internal risks such as solid pesticide cans which negatively contribute in health danger situations. Nevertheless, ISWM continues to alter biosphere, changes in environment in particular areas and at ecology levels in order to ensure that health is inflicted. Risk assessment by ISWM determines the nature and degree of risk by analyzing possible problems and evaluating existing circumstances of susceptible that could create prospective threats or damage to inhabitants, property, living, and the surroundings they depend on. ISWM focuses on minor problems that can result to future problems such climate change. ISWM has come up with different strategies to protect natural environment which contribute significantly to human health(USEPA, 2002).
1.4Reply to Objections
Despite the growing disbelief in the measure put in place by the government concerning the containment of the waste management, there are solid programs that help a lot. The uses of the Waste hierarchy are greatly helping to contain the issue raised effectively. Through the program, messages about waste management sustainability in urban areas are communicated to the target audience (Baud, Post & Furedy, 2004). The content of the messages is information on how avoid, reduce, reuse, recycle and dispose of waste. In addition, the idea behind solid waste management is based on protecting the environment from factors such as pollution, deforestation, fire, diseases etc. solid waste management enhances several strategies and plans of protecting the environment from pollution. In addition, solid waste management plan should ensure workers are treated in order to ensure health security and other living organisms of ecology (Tchobanoglous, Theisen, & Vigil, 1993).
Every administration/government globally should surpass use of solid cans of pesticides which greatly affects people’s health and the environment. Solid waste pollution can result to diverse consumption of natural resources such as water contamination. One of the major objective and goals in the solid waste management organizations is to protect the ozone layer affected by burned solid which produce emission of gases. Climate change has resulted to several effects such as deaths of fishes in the oceans as a result of emissions from solid waste. However, solid waste management course in America has shown delegates on how to end the key problems facing human health and environment. Apparently, solid chemical cans free environment enhances the ability to reduce the force of climatic change and artificial disaster. U.S. government agency has resolved to appoint new solid waste manager’s to control production and manufacturing industries in order to reduce the risk environment pollution and effect of the ozone layer which increases the effect of environmental issuesas a result of toxic gases that are emitted from burned solid wastes(Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002).
1.5Methods and measures
Climate change result to over 80% of infections to the living organisms as a result of solid waste causes dangers in their health due to disease infections. Therefore, ISWM ought to supply trucks to different industries in order to minimize environmental pollution by collecting solid waste in the landfills. Trucks that will collect solid waste from the landfills will significantly contribute to conservation of the environment. In addition, ISWM agency should restricted burning of solid waste in public since the key factor that to human health problems. In addition, ISWM agency should enhance the scientific understanding of environmental health risks. This approach will significantly influence growth and developments in more than a few areas where landfills has been a major problem. Through solid waste management, administrations will save currency in due course. This approach will protect inhabitants from internal contamination by being aware of how fabric replacement, aeration requirements, and use of property influence indoor air quality in new buildings (In Singh, & In Ramanathan,2010).
Data collection shows that 70% of environmental aspects have been wasted over the past 30 years or so. Due to high solid contamination, agriculture has been affected since people can no longer practice the activity in landfills and this is believed to be a major economic action. States like United Arabs Emirates (UAE) have imported food severally due to harsh climatic conditions which has greatly contributed to food shortage because there are no lands to practice agriculture. UAE exports 56% of its resources globally. Natural resources consumed within the country are less than 31%. Conversely, worst part of it is few investments within the country. UAE focuses on environmental preservation in order to secure environmental health. UAE environmental risks as a result of solid waste have resulted to great effects on people’s health for a long period of time (Baud & Furedy, 2004).
Due to economic growth in most states, solid waste in rapidly becoming a major issue globally. Therefore, it is clear that more than a few people are generally at great risks of being exposed to several physical, chemical, and natural hazards that may result to illness. Developing projects are the key factors that have contributed significantly to solid waste pollution to the environment. However, USEPA and Centre of Waste Management have come up with different strategies to prevent solid waste pollution. Invention of factories globally is the major factor contributing to increase in solid waste to the environment. Planned population settlement and urbanization in America has come up with different strategies to protect the environment from solid waste pollution. Solid waste management was basically was designed to help and guide the world in protecting the environment for the health of the existing and future generations. Effects of solid waste without action plans are difficult to tackle.
- Annotated Bibliography
Baud I. Post. J & Furedy C. (2004). Solid Waste Management and Recycling: Actors,Partnerships and Policies in Hyderabad, India and Nairobi, Kenya: NY, Boston, Dordrecht, London, And Moscow: Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 14020-175-0
The authors of this article describe the significance of solid waste management. The author of the article describes the methods that are used in solid waste management. For instance, the author describes the importance of collection services that the government has implemented to secure the environment.
In Singh, J., & In Ramanathan, A. L. (2010). Solid waste management: Present and future challenges. New Delhi: I.K. International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.
The author of this book is a lecturer in the University of Harvard; the author argues that there are considerable measures that governments should use in order to protect the future. Based on the book, the landfills have created a huge challenge that has influenced soil pollution as well as the environment. The author supports solid waste management because it is the only approach that can create change to the environment.
Royal Society of Chemistry. (2002). Environmental and health impact of solid waste management activities. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Based on the book, it is clear that environmental factors have been affected by health impact of solid waste. The Royal Society of Chemistry has conducted number researches to identify the impact influenced by solid waste. Based on their analysis, the team identified the effects of solid waste on human health and environment as well. These are the major factors that should be addressed by the government.
Tchobanoglous, G., Theisen, H., & Vigil, S. A. (1993). Integrated solid waste management: Engineering principles and management issues. New York [u.a.: McGraw Hill.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (2002). Solid Waste Management: A Local Challenge With Global Impacts. USA: USEPA.
USEPA is among the leading agencies that are seriously fighting for change in the environment. The agency has come up with suitable ideas that will assist the government United States to eliminate solid waste. Based on the article, solid waste management course in America has shown delegates on how to end the key problems facing human health and environment. USEPA states that solid chemical cans free environment enhances the ability to reduce the force of climatic change and artificial disaster.